Android

The android is a powerful operating system and it supports large number of applications in Smartphones. These applications are more comfortable and advanced for the users. The hardware that supports android software is based on ARM architecture platform. The android is an open source operating system means that it’s free and any one can use it.

Android is a Linux based operating system it is designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. The operating system have developed a lot in last 15 years starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers.

Android

The android framework is the set of API's that allow developers to quickly and easily write apps for android phones. Android is an open source operating system developed and being maintained by Google. A Framework is the set of API’s that let developers to write software easily and quickly.

The Android software stack includes:

Linux Kernel: Android OS is built upon Linux Kernel for Hardware support and it helps Android Runtime in low level memory management, etc. Linux kernel is well known kernel which allows various manufacturers to build hardware drivers for Android Devices easily.

Hardware Abstraction Layer(HAL): It helps High Level Java API’s to access the Hardware Capabilities. The HAL consists of multiple library modules, each of which implements an interface for a specific type of hardware component.

Android Runtime: Prior to Android 5.0, Android apps used Dalvik Virtual Machine to run application instances. Now, after the release of Android 5.0, each Android App runs on it’s own process and with it’s own instance of Android Runtime. It is specifically designed to run multiple virtual machines on memory constrained devices.

Native C/C++ Libraries: Many core Android system components and services, such as ART and HAL, are built from native code that require native libraries written in C and C++.

Java API Framework: The entire feature-set of the Android OS is available to you through APIs written in the Java language. You can build apps easily with least boilerplate code using these API’s. It contains many core components that are required to build an Android App such as ActivityManager, ContentProvider, NotificationManager, etc.

System Apps: This is the topmost layer of Android Software Stack. It includes the pre built set of system software that are included with Android Package such as Dialler, Contacts, Calculator, etc.

Kotlin

Kotlin is a great fit for developing server-side applications, allowing you to write concise and expressive code while maintaining full compatibility with existing Java-based technology stacks and a smooth learning curve:

Expressiveness: Kotlin's innovative language features, such as its support for type-safe builders and delegated properties, help build powerful and easy-to-use abstractions.

Scalability: Kotlin's support for coroutines helps build server-side applications that scale to massive numbers of clients with modest hardware requirements.

Interoperability: Kotlin is fully compatible with all Java-based frameworks, which lets you stay on your familiar technology stack while reaping the benefits of a more modern language.

Migration: Kotlin supports gradual, step by step migration of large codebases from Java to Kotlin. You can start writing new code in Kotlin while keeping older parts of your system in Java.

Tooling: In addition to great IDE support in general, Kotlin offers framework-specific tooling (for example, for Spring) in the plugin for IntelliJ IDEA Ultimate.

Learning Curve: For a Java developer, getting started with Kotlin is very easy. The automated Java to Kotlin converter included in the Kotlin plugin helps with the first steps. Kotlin Koans offer a guide through the key features of the language with a series of interactive exercises.