Java

In 2019, Java is still the most popular programming language in the world. It comes with a vast ecosystem and more than 9 million Java developers worldwide. Although Java is not the most straightforward language, you don’t have to write Java programs from scratch.

Java frameworks allow you to focus on the business logic of your apps instead of writing basic functionality such as making database connections or handling exceptions. There are many excellent Java frameworks to write web and mobile applications, microservices, and REST APIs that run on the Java Virtual Machine.

Blade

Blade is a lightweight and high-performance Java framework that allows you to build fast web applications in a straightforward way. The creators want users to understand the whole framework in a single day. Therefore, Blade focuses on simplicity and elegance. The Blade framework follows the MVC (Model-View-Controller) software design pattern. It has an easy-to-understand design, as it doesn’t depend on any third-party libraries or introduces too many layers.

With Blade, you have access to a RESTful-style routing interface and can deploy your app as a basic Maven project. Blade has built-in security features too, for instance, it comes with CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) and XSS (Cross-site scripting) defense. It’s a versatile framework, as it comes with support for plugin extensions and webjar resources.

Dropwizard

Dropwizard is a high-performance but straightforward Java framework for rapid development of RESTful web services. It’s especially suitable for creating Java microservices. The Dropwizard framework pulls together several well-established Java libraries to provide you with a fast and distraction-free development platform. It comes with an embedded Jetty server, Google Guava, Logback, Hibernate Validator, Joda Time, and many other popular Java libraries.

If you choose Dropwizard, you don’t have to spend much time on secondary functionalities like having to write your code for configuration, metrics, or logging. Instead, you can focus on the primary business logic of your app and achieve maximum productivity. That’s why Dropwizard is often referred to as an operations-friendly Java framework.

Grails

Grails is a web application framework that uses the Groovy programming language. Groovy is an object-oriented language for the Java platform that intends to enhance developer productivity. Its syntax is compatible with Java, and it’s compiled to JVM (Java Virtual Machine) bytecode.

Grails follows a handful of modern software development principles such as convention over configuration, opinionated APIs to enforce best practices, and sensible defaults.

Google Web Toolkit (GWT)

GWT, or the Google Web Toolkit, is a brilliant web framework created by Google. In fact, GWT fullfills the dream of every developer who wants to build Java apps for the web, as it allows you to write client-side Java code and deploy it as JavaScript for the browser.

GWT offers many advanced features such as internationalization, cross-browser portability, UI abstraction, bookmarking, and history management.

Hibernate

Hibernate is a stable object-relational mapping framework that makes better communication possible between the Java programming language and relational database management systems (RDBMSs).

Hibernate provides you with a framework that overcomes the mismatch problems of Java. It intends to achieve persistence, meaning that the data created/used by the application should outlive the process that generated it. It also has excellent developer tools such as a mapping editor, a Hibernate console, and an awesome database reverse engineering tool.

JavaServer Faces (JSF)

JavaServer Faces (JSF) is developed by Oracle as a specification for building user interfaces for Java-based web applications. It’s an official standard of the Java Community Process (JCP) initiative as well. Web applications created with JavaServer Faces are portable across different Java EE application servers as well.

Spring

The Spring Framework is probably the most well-known Java framework out there, with a huge ecosystem and an active community around it. It allows you to build enterprise-level Java applications, web services, and microservices. While the Spring Framework is excellent for building enterprise-level Java applications, it does have a steep learning curve.